In the first part of this review a brief summary of the embryology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract is provided. In the second part intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are discussed. Several signaling pathways play a crucial role in the crypt base in the regulation of ISC proliferation and self-renewal; Wnt, Notch, BMP, Ephrin, JAK/STAT1, PTEN, AKT, PI3K and many more. Numerous investigators are involved in studying the location, number, and behavior of ISCs within the base of the intestinal crypts. Several markers are espressed by ISCs. Among these, Leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor-5 (Lgr5), Sox9, Prominin-1, DCAMKL-1, EphB2, p-PTEN, p-AKT, Fgfr3, m-TER, and CD44. Stem cell therapy has shown promise for the treatment of some diseases characterized by tissue damage with ischemic and inflammatory lesions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015) · Cagliari (Italy) · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future
Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano