Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine (JPNIM) <p>The <strong>Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine (JPNIM)</strong> is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal which provides a forum on new perspectives in pediatric and neonatal medicine. The aim is to discuss and to bring readers up to date on the latest in research and clinical pediatrics and neonatology. Special emphasis is on developmental origin of health and disease or perinatal programming and on the so-called ‘-omic’ sciences. Systems medicine blazes a revolutionary trail from reductionist to holistic medicine, from descriptive medicine to predictive medicine, from an epidemiological perspective to a personalized approach. The journal will be relevance to clinicians and researchers concerned with personalized care for the newborn and child. Also medical humanities will be considered in a tailored way.</p> <p>Article submission (original research, review papers, invited editorials and clinical cases) will be considered in the following fields: fetal medicine, perinatology, neonatology, pediatrics, developmental programming, psychology and medical humanities.</p> en-US <p>© Hygeia Press</p> <p> </p> <h3>Copyright and publishing rights</h3> <p>Regarding copyright, before publication, Authors declare that, in consideration of the action of JPNIM in reviewing and editing their submission, they transfer, assign, or otherwise convey all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the JPNIM Publisher (Hygeia Press di Corridori Marinella).</p> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <p>Authors have the opportunity to reuse figures, tables and selected text up to 250 words from their article as finally published, providing that full and accurate credit shall be given to publication in JPNIM and that modifications are noted (otherwise no changes may be made).</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> (JPNIM Staff) (JPNIM Staff) OJS 60 Selected Lectures of the 16th International Congress on Neonatology and Pediatrics, On Demand; Cagliari (Italy); November 20th-December 31st, 2020 <p><strong>Selected Lectures of the 16<sup>th</sup> International Congress on Neonatology and Pediatrics, On Demand • Cagliari (Italy) • November 20<sup>th</sup>-December 31<sup>st</sup>, 2020</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br><strong>LECT 1 • THE IMPACT OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION, INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION AND PREMATURITY ON THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF TWINS •</strong> D.D. Briana (Athens, Greece)</p> <p><strong>LECT 2 • PFAPA (PERIODIC FEVER – APHTHOUS STOMATITIS – PHARYNGITIS – ADENOPATHY) SYNDROME: LIGHTS IN THE DARK? •</strong> S. Manti, G.F. Parisi, M. Papale, P. Barone, S. Leonardi (Catania, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 3 • EARLY LIFE INTERVENTIONS AND IMMUNE HEALTH RELEVANCE FOR SPECIALIZED NUTRITION •</strong> J. Garssen (Utrecht, The Netherlands)</p> <p><strong>LECT 4 • COVID-19 AND KAWASAKI SYNDROME: WHAT WE KNOW •</strong> P.P. Bassareo (Dublin, Ireland)</p> <p><strong>LECT 5 • HUMAN MILK AS A MAGIC FLUID •</strong> A. Dessì (Cagliari, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 6 • NEUROPROTECTION OF NEONATAL BRAIN TODAY •</strong> G. Buonocore (Siena, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 7 • PROBIOTICS: ARE ALL THE SAME? •</strong> R. Francavilla, V.N. Dargenio, F. Cristofori (Bari, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 8 • VITAMIN D: FROM ROOTS TO METABOLOMICS •</strong> M. Puddu (Cagliari, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 9 • RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: PRESENT AND FUTURE •</strong> L. Bonadies, A. Galderisi, E. Priante, V. Mardegan, E. Baraldi (Padua, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 10 • GROWTH: NATURE OR NURTURE? WHERE DOES INEQUALITY BEGIN? •</strong> E. Bertino, G. Maiocco, S. Sottemano (Turin, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 11 • OMICS IN AUTISM •</strong> M. Mussap (Cagliari, Italy)</p> <p><strong>LECT 12 • PLACENTA AND NEONATAL INFECTION: INTRIGUING CONNECTIONS •</strong> G. Faa, S. Angioni, V. Vallascas, M. Moi, F. Ledda, P. Van Eyken, D. Fanni, C. Gerosa (Cagliari, Italy, and Genk, Belgium)</p> <p><strong>LECT 13 • METABOLOMICS AND HUMAN MILK •</strong> V. Fanos, F. Bardanzellu, M. Puddu (Cagliari, Italy)</p> --- Various Authors Copyright (c) 2020 © Hygeia Press Sun, 08 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Management of preterm low birth weight infants in Dhaka: a comparison between Standard Care and Kangaroo Mother Care <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In Bangladesh, government healthcare facilities are adopting Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) more extensively for preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants to reduce neonatal deaths in the country. A quasi-experimental study was carried out to compare KMC and Standard Care (SC) outcomes for preterm LBW babies. Data were collected from December 2017 to June 2018. The study focused on the preterm neonates admitted to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka. A total of 25 neonates under KMC and 25 neonates under SC were enrolled from the initial study population. The study revealed that during the length of hospital stay, the incidence of hypothermia (4% in KMC vs. 24% in SC) and hyperthermia (8% in KMC vs. 32% in SC) and clinical late-onset sepsis (36% in KMC vs. 64% in SC) were significantly lower among neonates of KMC. Times to first feed (1.80 ± 0.40 in KMC vs. 2.20 ± 0.42 in SC) and to full enteral feeding (8.32 ± 2.49 in KMC vs. 19.56 ± 6.80 in SC) were also found to be significantly shorter among KMC neonates. Moreover, KMC mothers show adequate breastfeeding more often than in SC group (88% in KMC vs. 64% in SC). On the other hand, a higher proportion of SC neonates compared to KMC neonates were found to have feeding intolerance (56% in SC vs. 8% in KMC), hyperglycaemia (24% in SC vs. 4% in KMC) and apnoea (32% in SC vs. 8% in KMC). Finally, mean hospital stay (12.04 ± 2.74 days in KMC vs. 25.24 ± 7.20 days in SC) and mean treatment cost (9,508 ± 4,142 Taka in KMC vs. 35,064 ± 13,352 Taka in SC) were found to be significantly lower for KMC. In conclusion, KMC seems to be a safe and effective method of care for preterm LBW infants in a limited resources health care setting.</span></p> Mousumi Akter, Salamat Khandker, Mohammad Shaheen, Nadira Mehriban, Sk Akhtar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 © Hygeia Press Wed, 18 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Orange discoloration of the skin in mother and newborn with SARS-CoV-2 infection: is hypercarotenosis a sign of COVID-19? <p class="p1">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents a potentially fatal disease. Recently, dermatological manifestations have been reported to be signs of COVID-19. We describe a case of a newborn and her mother affected by SARS-CoV-2, that developed hypercarotenosis (HC) about 5 weeks after delivery. The aim of this report is to identify the pathological mechanism of this association and to underline the importance of investigating any dubious skin manifestation in case of contact with patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, because it may be a clinical sign of infection. Even if not previously described in the literature, this case report suggests a possible association between HC and SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p> Dario Alario, Giorgio Bracaglia, Giulia Franceschini, Fabio Arcangeli, Federico Mecarini Copyright (c) 2020 © Hygeia Press Fri, 20 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Correspondence: the donation of human milk during the COVID-19 pandemic <p><strong>Dear Editor,</strong></p> <p>In previous epidemics, it has been shown that the use of breast milk represents one of the first crucial measures to be taken in emergencies.</p> <p>On the occasion of the World Day for the Donation of Human Milk, which was celebrated on May 22, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN) reaffirmed the importance of Human Milk Banks (HMBs), reassuring mothers about the safety of donation at HMBs, also in this pandemic period.</p> <p>In the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy, we found that the restrictive measures did not represent a reason to limit breastfeeding nor donation. We have been close to nursing and donating mothers, providing constant support from the HMB and NICU staff, with practical advice and psychological closeness.</p> <p>In particular, in the February-May period, the crucial one of the pandemic, 15 donors donated 91.25 liters. In comparison with the average of previous years of donation data to the HMB, the balance is even in favor of the current year. In fact, in 2019, in the same period, 12 mothers were recruited and 58.7 liters were collected and, in 2018, the donor women were 10 but they donated 119.5 liters.</p> <p>As manager of the HMB, I found it useful to report the experience of our HMB and our NICU on this specific aspect, and I hope that other HMBs can do the same. I believe that these testimonies can represent an element of hope, encouragement and reflection. Solidarity did not end with the lockdown.</p> Pasqua Anna Quitadamo Copyright (c) 2020 © Hygeia Press Sun, 08 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Correspondence: early identification of COVID-19 positive outpatient children, is it useful? <p>The differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and the common cold, or allergic cough, or mild respiratory symptoms with or without fever is not easy for Primary Care Pediatricians (PCPs).<br />According to the official Italian report “<em>Rapporto ISS COVID-19 n. 58/2020</em>” of August 21<sup>st</sup>, 2020, all children with COVID-19 common symptoms and/or a corporal temperature higher than 37.5°C, are considered as suspected cases and have to be tested with a nasopharyngeal swab. <br />We have identified risk factors that could be useful in PCPs' clinical practice to define priorities in addressing children to the proper diagnostic procedure. <br />For the physical and mental health of the children and their families and to allow the PCPs to fulfill their duty, it is important to look for less invasive tools to perform the proper diagnosis. This should also allow children to go to school and to go on with their daily life.</p> Gianfranco Trapani, Osama Al Jamal Copyright (c) 2020 © Hygeia Press Sun, 22 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100