The increased survival among very low birth weight (VLBW) contributes to the overall increase in the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), that remains a major complication of prematurity.
The long-term health consequences of BPD include early and long term respiratory disease, susceptibility to respiratory infections, pulmonary hypertension, repeated hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental impairment and increased mortality.
BPD pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes exposure to mechanical ventilation, oxygen toxicity, infection, and inflammation, but the real causes in single individuals have not been well clarified.
In this review the current and potential future postnatal pharmacological (caffeine, diuretics, postnatal corticosteroids, bronchodilators, pulmonary vasodilators, anti-oxidants) and non-pharmacological strategies (ventilatory support, stem cells) in the prevention and management of BPD will be presented.
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy) · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research